Spinal Cord Posterior View
The spinal cord posterior view shows the vertebral column and its anatomical structure. The spinal cord is made up of several layers. The spinal arteries, Rexed lamina VI, Substantia gelatinosa, Ventral root fibers, and cisterna magna are all visible on this diagram.
Anterior And Posterior Spinal Arteries
The anterior and posterior spinal arteries provide blood supply to the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. The anterior spinal artery originates from the vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and converges with the latter to form the basilar artery. The basilar artery supplies the cerebellum and pons. The basilar artery then bifurcates to form the posterior cerebral arteries. They are the terminal branches of the vertebral artery and the internal carotid artery.
The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord. If a branch of it is occluded, it causes flaccid paralysis in the muscles supplied by the affected segments. It may also cause spastic paralysis below the level of occlusion. In severe cases, it may also affect pain and temperature sensation.
Rexed Lamina VI
The gray matter of the spinal cord displays a pattern of lamination. Each lamina contains a variety of sizes and shapes of neurons. The Rexed lamina classification is based on 10 layers of neurons and relates to function more closely than previous classifications.
The Rexed lamina VII spinal cord posterior view consists of a large heterogeneous region. This area contains neurons that receive information from Rexed laminas I to VI as well as from visceral afferent fibers. They also serve as intermediate relays in the transmission of motor neurons. They form a prominent column of round and oval cells that give rise to uncrossed nerve fibers.
The substantia gelatinosa is an area in the spinal cord that receives input from dorsal sensory nerve roots. It is also thought to receive input from the descending sensory fibers and contribute to the anterolateral and contralateral lamina II. This area consists of fine networks of interneurons and has high levels of substance P and opiate type receptors.
The substantia gelatinosa contains interneurons that produce endogenous opioid peptides. These neurotransmitters act by inhibiting C fiber cells. The substantia gelatinossa is also known as the “substance P and opiate receptor cell layer”. It is believed to be important in the modulation of sensory input.
Ventral Root Fibers
Ventral root fibers are a major component of the motor neuron in the spinal cord. These fibers receive nociceptive and monosynaptic information from visceral organs and are found throughout the spinal cord. They comprise a wide zone across the dorsal horn and are separated into lateral and medial parts. These fibers project to the thalamus and the brain stem via the spinothalamic tract. The ventral horn contains a variety of motor neurons, which innervate skeletal muscle.
Ventral root fibers in the spinal cord are composed of axons of the motor and visceral efferent nerves. Most of these axons originate from motor neurons in the ventral horn. These fibers then merge with the peripheral processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells to form the spinal nerve.
The Atlas is the topmost vertebra in the spinal column. Together with the axis, it forms a joint, allowing a wide range of motion. It also supports the head and is responsible for nodding and head rotation. The first vertebra (C1), which is the atlas, is ring-shaped. The next four vertebrae are box-shaped and have a spinous process on each side.
This atlas is the most important part of the spine, because it contains the brainstem and spinal cord. The brainstem extends down the axis. Its anterior arch is convex and forms one-fifth of the ring. The anterior arch also contains a tubercle, which attaches to the Longus Colli muscle. It also contains a smooth oval or circular facet that articulates with the odontoid process.
The ventral spinocerebellar tract originates in laminae 7 and 9 of the lumbar spinal cord, and ascends from the lower part of the spinal cord. Axons of the dorsal nucleus project into the cerebellum from this tract. In humans, these axons come from Group Ib and Group II cells in the spinal border.
This tract is similar to the dorsal spinocerebellar tract, and carries sensory information about the upper limbs to the cerebellum. It synapse with neurons in the accessory cuneate nucleus. This tract also carries proprioceptive information from the muscles of the upper extremities.
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